Physical education is an integral part of the total education of every child in kindergarten through high school. Quality physical education programs are needed to increase the physical competence, health-related fitness, self-responsibility and enjoyment of physical activity for all students so that they can be physically active for a lifetime. Physical education programs can only provide these benefits if they are well-planned and well-implemented. Here’s what quality physical education programs can do for students, according to the National Association for Sport and Physical Education:
To verify data quality, respondents might be queried about the same information but asked at different points of the survey and in a number of different ways. Measures of ‘ Social Desirability ’ might also be used to get a measure of the honesty of responses. There are two points that need to be raised here, 1) cross-checks within the data collection process and 2) data quality being as much an observation-level issue as it is a complete data set issue. Thus, data quality should be addressed for each individual measurement, for each individual observation, and for the entire data set.
Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, both Professors at the New York University School of Medicine, published Your Child Is A Person: A Psychological Approach To Childhood Without Guilt in 1965. While the work may be dated, the information contained therein is not. In their work, these professionals performed long-term studies on children from across cultural and economic strata and classified temperament according to nine criteria: sensory threshold; activity level; intensity; rhythmicity; adaptability; mood; approach/withdrawal; persistence; and distractibility. The children’s “score” on these traits classify them as “easy,” “slow to warm up,” and “difficult.” The children in the study were observed at ages 2 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years. Parental observations and input were also considered for the study. The nine dimensions of temperament that Chess and Thomas defined are as follows: