Early greek philosophy other essays

psuche/psyche ψυχή Originally, life, spirit, a life-force, and in Greek philosophy, translated as “soul. ” As LS indicate, in Homer psuche can mean “departed spirit, ghost.” In the pre-Socratics, it can mean “consciousness”, the “source of life,” and a kind of “primary substance,” eg in Heraclitus. For Plato and Aristotle, this is the term used to refer to an immortal, immaterial soul and the defining substance and principle (or for Aristotle, essence) of the human being. In dualistic theories, that the human being has both a “soul” and/or “mind” and body, the body or physical nature is defined as “ soma” σῶμα “body.”

But while Al-Farabi , Ibn Sina (Avicenna), and other Persian and Muslim philosophers hurried, so to speak, over subjects that trenched on religious dogmas, Ibn Rushd delighted in dwelling upon them with full particularity and stress. Thus he says, "Not only is matter eternal, but form is potentially inherent in matter; otherwise, it were a creation ex nihilo " (Munk, "Mélanges", p. 444). According to this theory, therefore, the existence of this world is not only a possibility, as Ibn Sina declared—in order to make concessions to the orthodox— but also a necessity.

Aristotle, a student of Plato for almost 20 years, was the tutor of Alexander the Great . Aristotle’s interests covered a wide scope: ethics, metaphysics, physics, biology, mathematics, meteorology, astronomy, psychology, politics and rhetoric, among other topics.  Aristotle was the first thinker who systematically developed the study of logic. Some of the components of Aristotelian logic existed long before Aristotle such as Socrates’ ideas on exact definition, argumentative techniques found in Zeno of Elea , Parmenides and Plato, and many other elements traceable to legal reasoning and mathematical proof. Aristotle’s logic system consists of five treatises known as the Organon, and although it does not exhaust all logic, it was a pioneering one, revered for centuries and regarded as the ultimate solution to logic and reference for science. Aristotle’s contribution in logic and science became an authority and remained unchallenged as late as the modern age: we can recall Galileo who, after careful observation during the Renaissance, came to the conclusion that most of the Aristotelian physics and astronomy was not in line with the empirical evidence and yet, Galileo’s ideas were widely rejected by his contemporary Aristotelian scholars. Even during the most obscure times during the Middle Ages, a copy of the Organon, or maybe fragments of it, could be found in all prestigious libraries.

Plan B
Students electing Plan B will take an in-class midterm and final examination and will enroll in discussion sections which meet once a week for fifty minutes. These sections will offer the students an opportunity to discuss in detail issues raised in the course. Students in Plan B are encouraged to propose topics for discussion to the teaching fellow who will lead the discussions. Students following Plan B will submit a paper, not more than 1500 words long, on a topic of their own choosing, subject to the approval of the section leader.

Early greek philosophy other essays

early greek philosophy other essays

Plan B
Students electing Plan B will take an in-class midterm and final examination and will enroll in discussion sections which meet once a week for fifty minutes. These sections will offer the students an opportunity to discuss in detail issues raised in the course. Students in Plan B are encouraged to propose topics for discussion to the teaching fellow who will lead the discussions. Students following Plan B will submit a paper, not more than 1500 words long, on a topic of their own choosing, subject to the approval of the section leader.

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